web 2.0

Important Research

 

Here's a bibliography of some of the more relevant studies on the depiction of smoking in movies.  The most recent studies are listed first:

  • McMillen R.C., Tanski S., Winickoff J.P., Valentine N. (2007) Attitudes about smoking in the movies. Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control. Mississippi State University Social Science Research Center, American Academy of Pediatrics.
  • Healton C.G., Watson-Stryker E., et al. (2006) Televised Movie Trailers: Undermining Restrictions on Advertising Tobacco to Youth. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 160:885-888.
  • Worth K., Tanski S., Sargent J. (2006) Trends in Top Box Office Movie Tobacco Use: 1996-2004. American Legacy Foundation First Look Report 16.
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) Cigarette Use Among High School Students --- United States, 1991--2005. MMWR 55(26);724-726.
  • LeGresley E., Muggli M., Hurt R. (2006) Movie Mogus: British American Tobacco's covert strategy to promote cigarettes in Easter Europe. Eur. J. Pub. Health doi:10,1093/eurpub/ckl041. (Report in British Medical Journal)
  • Alamar B., Glantz S. (2006) Tobacco industry profits from smoking in the movies. Pediatrics 117:1642.
  • Charlesworth A., Glantz S. (2006) Smoking in the Movies Increases Adolescent Smoking: A Review. Pediatrics 116 (6):1516-1528.
  • Sargent J.D., Beach M.L., et al. (2005) Exposure to movie smoking: its relation to smoking initiation among US adolescents. Pediatrics 116(5):1183-91.
  • Sargent, J.D. (2005) Smoking in Movies: Impact on Adolescent Smoking. Adolesc. Med. 16: 345-370.
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Tobacco Use, Access, and Exposure to Tobacco in Media among Middle and High School Students --- United States, 2004. MMWR 54(12):297-301.
  • Omidvari, K., Lessnau, K., et al. (2005) Smoking in Contemporary American Cinema. Chest 128: 746-754.
  • Dozier, D.M., Lauzen, M.M., et al. (2005) Leaders and elites: Portrayals of smoking in popular films Tobacco Control 14: 7-9.
  • Lambert, A., Sargent, J., et al. (2004) How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control Tobacco Control 13: 400-402.
  • Mekemson, C., Glik, D., et al. (2004) Tobacco use in popular movies during the past decade. Tobacco Control 13: 400-402.
  • Edwards, C.A., Harris, W.C., et al. (2004) Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women’s perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke? Tobacco Control 13:277-282.
  • McCool, J.P, Cameron, L., Petrie, K. (2004) Stereotyping the smoker: adolescents’ appraisals of smokers in film. Tobacco Control 13:308-314.
  • Sargent, J.D., Beach, M.L., et al. (2004) Effect of Parental R-Rated Movie Restriction on Adolescent Smoking Initiation: A Prospective Study Pediatrics 114:149 –156.
  • Distefan, J.M., Pierce, J.B., Gilpin, E.A. (2004) Do Favorite Movie Stars Influence Adolescent Smoking Initiation? Am. J. Public Health 94:1239-1244.
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004) Cigarette Use Among High School Students --- United States, 1991--2003. MMWR 53(23);499-502.
  • Glantz, S.A., Kacirk, K., McCullough, C. (2004) Back to the Future: Smoking in Movies in 2002 Compared With 1950 Levels. Am. J. Pub. Health 94:261-263.
  • Wakefield, M., Flay, B. , et. al (2003) Role of Media in influencing trajectories of youth smoking. Addiction 98(suppl 1):79-103.
  • Watson, N.A., Clarkson, J.P., et. al (2003) Filthy or fashionable? Young people's perceptions of smoking in the media Health Education Research 18:554-567.
  • Sargent, J.D., Dalton, M.A., et. al (2003) Modifying Exposure to Smoking Depicted in Movies: A Novel Approach to Preventing Adolescent Smoking. Arch. Pediatric Adolesc. Med. 157:643-648.
  • Dalton, M.A., Sargent, J.D., et. al (2003) Effect of viewing smoking in movies on adolescent smoking initiation: A cohort study. The Lancet 362(9380):281-285. (Reprinted with permission of The Lancet.)
  • Glantz, S.A. (2003) Smoking in movies: A major problem and a real solution. The Lancet 362(9380):281-285. (Reprinted with permission of The Lancet.)
  • McCool, J.P., Cameron, L.D., Petrie, K.J. (2003) Interpretations of smoking in film by older teenagers. Soc. Science & Medicine 56:1023-1032.
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002) Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among High School Students ---United States, 1991--2001. MMWR May 17, 2002 / 51(19);409-412.
  • Dalton, M.A., Tickle, J.J., et. al (2002) The incidence and context of tobacco use in popular movies from 1988 to 1997. Preventive Med. 34:516-523.
  • Mekemson, C., Glantz, S. (2002) How the tobacco industry built its relationship with Hollywood. Tobacco Control 11:i81-i91
  • Sargent, J.D., Dalton, M.A., et. al (2002) Viewing tobacco use in movies: Does it shape attitudes that mediate adolescent smoking? Am. J. Prev. Med. 22:137-145.
  • Dalton, M.A, Ahrens, M. B, et. al (2002) Relation between parental restrictions on movies and adolescent use of tobacco and alcohol. Effective Clinical Practice 5:1-10.
  • Gidwani P., Sobol A., et al. (2002) Television viewing and initiation of smoking among youth. Pediatrics 5:31-34.
  • Dixon H.G., Hill D.J. et al. (2001) Public reaction to the portrayal of the tobacco industry in the film The Insider. Tobacco Control 10:285–291.
  • Sargent, J.D., Beach, M. L., et. al (2001) Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: cross sectional study. Br. Med. J 323:1394-7.
  • Glantz, S. (2001) Smoking in teenagers and watching films showing smoking: Hollywood needs to stop promoting smoking worldwide. Br. Med. J. 323:1378-9.
  • Kacirk, K., Glantz, S. (2001) Smoking in movies in 2000 exceeded rates in the 1960s. Tobacco Control 10: 397-398.
  • Pechmann, C. (2001). A comparison of health communication models: Risk learning versus stereotype priming. Media Psychology, Volume 3, 189-210.
  • Tickle, J.J., Sargent, J. D., et. al (2001) Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary films, and its association with adolescent smoking. Tobacco Control 10: 16-22.
  • Sargent, J., Tickle, J., et al. (2001) Brand appearances in contemporary cinema films and contribution to global marketing of cigarettes. Lancet 357: 29-32.
  • Escamilla, G., Cradock, A., et al. (2000). Women and smoking in Hollywood movies: A content analysis. Am. J. Public Health 90(3): 412-414.
  • Glantz, S., Balbach, E. (2000) Tobacco War, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Gibson, B. Maurer, J. (2000) Cigarette smoking in the movies: The influence of product placement on attitudes toward smoking and smokers. J. Applied Social Psychology 30(7):1457-1473.
  • Hines, D., Saris R.N., Throckmorton-Belzer, L. (2000) Cigarette smoking in popular films: Does it increase viewers' liklihood to smoke? J. Applied Social Psychology 30: 2246-2269.
  • Goldstein, Adam O. MD; Sobel, Rachel A.; Newman, Glen R. (1999) Tobacco and Alcohol Use in G-Rated Children's Animated Films. Journal of the American Medical Association 281(12); 1131-1136.
  • Shields, D. L., Carol, J., et al. (1999) Hollywood on tobacco: How the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal. Tobacco Control 8(4): 378-86.
  • Pechmann, C., Shih, C. (1999) Smoking in movies and antismoking advertisements before movies: Effects on youth. J. Marketing 63(3): 1-13.
  • Distefan, J. Gilpin, E., et al. (1999) Do movie stars encourage adolescents to start smoking? Evidence from California. Prev. Med. 28: 1-11.
  • Teti, T., Glantz, S. (1998) Smoking in movies remained high in 1997. Tobacco Control 7: 441-442.
  • Everett, S., Schnuth, R., et al. (1998) Tobacco and alcohol use in top-grossing American films. J. Community Health 23(4): 317-324.
  • McIntosh, W.D., Bazzini, D.G., et al. (1998) Who smokes in Hollywood? Charachteristics of smokers in popular films from 1940 to 1989. Addictive Behaviors 23(3):395-398.
  • Vanzi, M. (1997) Lawmaker targets on-screen smoking. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA: 3 October 26.
  • Stockwell, T., Glantz, S. (1997) Tobacco use in increasing popular films. Tobacco Control 6: 282-284.
  • Parker-Pope, T. (1997) Push against smoking opens on silver screen. Wall Street Journal. New York, NY: B1 May 19.
  • Gellene, D. (1997) Anti-smoke screen: LA County films ads to counter cigarettes' 'cool' image —but few theaters show them. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA: D1 December 11.
  • Chapman, S. and R. Davis (1997) Tobacco use in films: Is it a problem? Tobacco Control 6: 269-271.
  • Thomas, K. (1996) Hollywood's cigarette break of sorts. USA Today: D6 November 7, 1996.
  • Thomas, K. (1996). Lighting up: Tobacco has a role in most movies. USA Today: D6 November 7, 1996.
  • Thomas, K. (1996) No waiting to inhale: Cigarettes light up the movies. USA Today: D1 November 7, 1996.
  • Pechmann, C., Shih, C. (1996) How Smoking in Movies and Anti-Smoking Ads before Movies May Affect Teenagers' Perceptions of Peers Who Smoke. Irvine, CA, Graduate School of Management, University of California, Irvine.
  • Kalish, D. (1996) Fewer Americans smoke, but Hollywood can't kick habit. Associated Press October 22.
  • Glantz, S.A., Slade, J., et al. (1996) The Cigarette Papers. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
  • Dutka, E. (1996) Force of Habit: Where there's smoke, there's Hollywood. The portrayal of smoking on-screen goes on, much to the dismay of activists who are locked in battle with the tobacco industry. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA September 5.
  • Hazan, A., Glantz, S. (1995) Current trends in tobacco use on prime-time fictional television (letter). Am. J. Pub. Health 85: 116-117.
  • Hazan, A., Lipton, H., Glantz, S. (1994) Popular films do not reflect current tobacco use. Am. J. Public Health 84: 998-1000